The Kingston Scales are designed for the rapid yet comprehensive assessment of geriatric patients suspected of having a progressive dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The scales assess cognition, behaviour, and caregiver stress, and are free of charge.  As most scales are updated from time to time, so are the Kingston Scales.  First published in 1991 with the most recent update being in 2023.

Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment - Revised - Plus Driving Scale (KSCAr+Drive) (along with the Brief KSCAr and mini-KSCAr)

A proven and reliable assessment of dementia even in its earliest stages, before other scales reveal a problem.  The KSCAr+Drive now incorporates a “driving scale” (that requires no new testing procedures) to help determine whether an individual is likely to pass the road test of a medical motor vehicle  examination.  The KSCAr+Drive may be useful in assessing most neurological diseases, including CTE  (chronic traumatic encephalopathy).

Other Languages


Kingston Scales in Other Languages

All of the Kingston Scales are available in French and Hebrew. The KCSS and KSBA(comm) are available in Chinese, and the KCSS is also available in Greek, Romanian, Burmese, and Urdu. The authors welcome translations into other languages.

Caregiver Stress


 Kingston Standardized Behavioural  Assessment (Community or Long Term Care  Forms) (KSBA(comm) and KSBA(LTC))

 The KSBA provides a more broad and  realistic behavioural assessment available  without specially trained personnel, even in  the early stages of dementia. The  Community Form can predict when long  term care placement is needed, and the  Long Term Care Form is an effective  component of program evaluation.

Kingston Scales Institute

Kingston Caregiver Stress Scale (KCSS)

A quick method of allowing caregivers to express the level of stress they are feeling, without invoking such unreliable concepts such as caregiver burden.