Kingston Scales


KSBA(comm) and KSBA(LTC)

Since progressive dementias such as Alzheimer’s disease are characterized by behavioural as well as cognitive disturbances, the Kingston Standardized Behavioural Assessment was designed to complement cognitive assessment tools such as the KSCAr, by providing an indication of the number of behavioural symptoms associated with dementia which are currently affecting an individual. Since both the placement and introduction of home support services, not to mention caregiver stress, are almost always triggered by behavioural and not cognitive issues, a behavioural analysis of the individual is of great importance and not something that can be gained as easily or systematically from other sources. The KSBA comes in 2 forms: one for the community living individual -

KSBA(comm), and a version more suitable for use in long term care settings - KSBA(LTC).


Hopkins R, Kilik L, Day D, Bradford L, Rows C. (2006) "Kingston Standardized Behavioural Assessment." The American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 21: 339-346.

Kilik L, Hopkins R, Day D, Prince C, Prince P, Rows C. (2008) "The progression of behaviour in dementia: An in-office guide for clinicians." The American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 23:242-249.)

Hopkins, RW, David, MM, Kilik, LA. (2014) "A Re-examination of Behaviour in Depression: Have We Grossly
          Underestimated the Extent and Impact of the Behavioural Suffering?" Canadian Journal of Behavioural
          Science, 46:456-463.  doi: 10. 1037/a0035527

Kilik L. & Hopkins R. (2016) The relationship btween caregiver stress and behavioural change in dementia. - see Caregiver Stress page on this website.