Kingston Scales Institute


         The Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment - Revised - Plus Driving Scale (KSCAr+Drive) is an instrument designed to assess elderly individuals suspected of having progressive dementias. The KSCAr+Drive is a broad range test that can assess a number of cognitive abilities but concentrates on those commonly impaired in dementia.  It produces a comprehensive assessment of memory, language, and visual-motor functions – yielding a percentile score for each, as well as an overall Total Score.  The KSCAr+Drive now incorporates a driving scale which helps determine whether an individual is likely to pass a motor vehicle road examination, a question often asked of clinicians.  (See Kilik, Fogarty & Hopkins (2018).   (The only differences between the older KSCAr and the new KSCAr+Drive are a new “Scoring Summary” sheet (page 2) and an added “Score Analysis” page (page 37).  All other pages and sub-tests are the same: no new sub-tests give, no new procedures to learn.)

        The KSCAr+Drive is a valuable tool as it provides an exceptionally comprehensive screening in fewer than 30 minutes, without requiring specially trained personnel.  The KSCAr+Drive can provide  a comprehensive assessment of most neurological diseases, including CTE  (chronic traumatic encephalopathy).



The Brief Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment is a shorter version of the full KSCAr. It can assess a number of cognitive capabilities concentrating on those commonly impaired in dementia, especially in the early stages. It provides a comprehensive screening in a short period of time without special training. An assessment can typically be completed in about 15 minutes.



The mini-KSCAr, is an instrument that has been designed as an initial screen to rapidly assess elderly individuals suspected of having a progressive dementia. It primarily focuses on the assessment of those symptoms commonly found in the early stages of dementia; i.e. memory (orientation, immediate and delayed recall, and recognition), executive functioning (abstract thinking), and motor spatial abilities (clock drawing). Individuals can be compared to groups of outpatients with Alzheimer’s or other dementias, as well as to a community dwelling normal elderly sample. A group of outpatients with depression, but without dementia, is also included. The mini-KSCAr can also be used for follow-up assessments after an initial full KSCAr has been administered.

One of the main values of the mini-KSCAr is that it provides a more comprehensive and reliable screening in a period of time comparable to that one would take to complete a MMSE or MoCA, all without special training or specially trained personnel. It is, therefore, of particular interest to primary care physicians who routinely have to quickly assess elderly patients for signs of dementia. It should be noted, that the “Assessment Form” for the mini-KSCAr is very much shorter than the other KSCAr’s.


Kilik, LA, Fogarty, JN, and Hopkins, RW. (2018) “Medical Driving Assessment Outcomes in Seniors Using the 

              KSCAr+Drive An In-Office Screening Tool to Assist Clinicians In Determining Driving Safety and Who to  

              Refer For Medical Driving Assessments” J Parkinsons Dis Alzheimer Dis 5(2):5     ISSN:2376-922X

Heinik, J. & Kavé, G. (2015) An investigation of the efficiency of the mini-Kingston standardized cognitive

            assessment-revised in classifying patients according to DSM-5 major and mild neurocognitive

           disorders due to possible Alzheimer's disease.  International Psychogeriatrics, 27, 785-791.

           DOI: /10.1017/S1041610214002919

Hopkins, RW, Kilik, LA. (2013) The mini-Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment, The American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 28, 239-244. (Originally published online Mar 28, 2013)

Hopkins R, Kilik L, Day D, Rows C, Hamilton P. (2005) The Brief Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment -Revised. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 20, 227-231.

Hopkins R, Kilik L, Day D, Rows C, Hamilton P. (2004). The Revised Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry19(4):320-326.

Rodenburg, M., Hopkins, R., Hamilton, P., Ginsburg, L, Nashed, Y., and Minde, N. (1991) "The Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 6, 867-874.